The Growing Threat of QR Code Phishing Attacks
Over the last few years, QR codes have become ubiquitous in our everyday lives. We scan them to access menus, event info, contact details, WiFi networks and more. However, cybercriminals have now started leveraging the convenience of QR codes to launch phishing attacks aimed at stealing sensitive user data. This blog post will explore this emerging attack vector known as “QR code phishing” or “quishing”.
What is QR Code Phishing?
QR code phishing involves attackers generating fake, malicious QR codes that redirect users to phishing sites when scanned. These fraudulent sites are designed to imitate legitimate websites from banks, payment providers, social networks, etc. in order to deceive victims into giving up login credentials, credit card details, or other sensitive information. The core components of a QR code phishing attack include:
- Creation - Attackers easily generate malicious QR codes linking to phishing sites using free online tools and QR code generators.
- Distribution - QR codes are then spread through various channels like email, SMS, social media posts, flyers in public spaces, or even stickers placed over legitimate QR codes.
- Redirection - When an unsuspecting user scans the code with their smartphone camera, it redirects them to the phishing site.
- Deception - The phishing site shows a fake login page mimicking a trusted brand users recognize. Users get tricked into entering their credentials or financial information.
- Data Harvesting - Attackers capture the sensitive data entered by victims on phishing sites to gain access to user accounts or commit payment fraud.
Alarming Growth in QR Code Phishing
According to data from a recent study, the Hoxhunt Challenge, covering over 38 global enterprises, QR code phishing attacks have increased by 22% in just the last year. Out of all the phishing attack vectors analyzed in the report, QR code phishing saw the highest growth. The study also found that the retail industry faced the maximum brunt of QR code phishing attacks. In the retail sector, only 2 out of 10 retail employees were successfully able to identify and report suspicious QR codes. Comparatively, the legal industry performed the best, with a 50% success rate in QR code phishing detection among staff. 1. These statistics indicate how QR code phishing represents an escalating threat for both individuals and businesses amidst the expanding use of QR codes in customer engagement.
QR codes can present threats beyond just phishing, such as distributing malware. Here are some additional dangers of malicious QR codes:
Much like malicious links, attackers can use QR codes to redirect users to sites hosting malware. When the victim scans the code, the malware gets downloaded onto their device where it can steal data, encrypt files for ransom, or give attackers remote access.
Enabling Camera/Microphone Access
Some QR codes exploit the camera permissions granted for scanning them. This allows access to a device's camera and microphone, letting attackers spy on users.
Gathering Location Data
While not directly malicious, some QR codes enable location tracking when scanned. This allows unknown parties to gather details about where and when the QR code was scanned.
How QR Code Phishing Works
To understand how to protect against QR code phishing, it’s important to first understand how the attack works from the attacker’s side:
Step 1: Generate Phishing QR Code
The first step for attackers is using a free online QR code generator to create a QR code linking to their phishing site. Many tools make it easy to generate custom QR codes in just a few clicks.
Step 2: Distribute QR Code
Next, attackers distribute the malicious QR codes through various channels to reach a wide pool of potential victims. This includes:
- Emails or SMS containing the QR code image or linking to it
- Social media posts and ads with the QR code
- Physical flyers or stickers with the QR code placed in public areas
- Replacing legitimate QR codes with the phishing QR code
Step 3: Victim Scans QR Code
When the victim scans the QR code using their smartphone’s camera, it triggers the code and redirects the phone’s browser to the phishing site. The site loads quickly so victims don’t notice anything suspicious.
Step 4: Enter Details on Phishing Site
The phishing site presents a fake interface asking users to sign into their accounts, promising exclusive deals for inputting account details or requesting sensitive information. Victims enter the requested credentials or other info, fooled by the legitimate-looking site.
Step 5: Attacker Harvests Data
In the final step, the phishing site captures all the data entered by the victim. Attackers steal this information to gain access to user accounts for financial fraud or identity theft purposes.
Protecting Yourself from QR Code Phishing
Here are some tips individuals and businesses should follow to detect and prevent QR code phishing attacks:
Be Wary of Unexpected QR Codes
Treat QR codes like you would unfamiliar links. Unless you’re expecting to scan a QR code, be suspicious of any random QR codes you encounter to avoid falling into traps.
Check Surroundings Before Scanning
Evaluate whether the context justifies scanning the QR code. An out-of-place QR code on a telephone pole likely leads to a shady site instead of something useful.
Scan QR Codes in Isolated Environments
Open QR codes using isolated virtual browser apps like Sandbox Browser (Android) or Reader (iOS) instead of your default browser. These apps open sites in restricted environments to limit damage if the QR code is malicious.
Avoid Entering Sensitive Information on Sites from QR Codes
If you scan a QR code leading to an unknown website, avoid entering any login credentials or sensitive details on those sites as they have higher risks of being phishing sites.
Double Check for QR Code Overlays
Attackers often print fake QR code stickers and place them over real QR codes to trick victims into scanning the malicious ones instead. Always double-check to see if a QR code has been overlaid on top of another one before scanning by trying to peel off the edges.
If you find multiple layers of stickers, do not scan the code as the topmost QR code is likely fraudulent aiming to steal your information or install malware. Carefully remove the fake sticker and scan the original QR code underneath. Examining QR codes closely before scanning helps uncover this sneaky phishing technique.
Use a QR Code Scanner with Phishing Protection
Some scanner apps offer phishing warnings when scanning codes detected as malicious links. Such apps provide an additional layer of protection. For businesses using QR codes in marketing materials and operations, investing in cybersecurity training to educate employees and customers on identifying potential QR code phishing threats is crucial. Keeping software updated and using secure coding practices for custom QR code integrations also minimizes risks.
The Future of Securing QR Codes
As QR code phishing continues to rise, improved security practices for generating, sharing and scanning QR codes will be imperative. Government policies regulating the official use of QR codes, blockchain-enabled QR code encryption, and advanced AI protection may provide enhanced safeguards against phishing and fraud with QR codes going forward. In the meantime, exercising caution by following the tips outlined above helps individuals and businesses steer clear of QR code phishing traps. Being alert and wary when encountering unexpected QR codes in unusual places is the best initial line of defence. Understanding the mechanics of QR code phishing techniques allows users to recognize red flags. Remaining vigilant and security-conscious is key to protecting yourself in the evolving landscape of digital threats.